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b The diving equipment is the set of devices that a diver uses to dive. Divers distinguish between light equipment and heavy equipment, but in each dive they are equipped with elements from both categories of equipment. The heavy equipment includes the autonomous scuba, which although a term little used by divers designates the device that allows breathing under water with total independence of the surface. The scuba suit is made up of the two most essential elements of all diving equipment: the breathing gas bottle (either compressed air or any other mixture of respirable gases) and the regulator.

Light equipment

It is the essential and it is considered that every diver must have it in property; But the diving bases usually rent it.

Jacket: is the top with a strap on the back to pass through the leg to the front zipper to prevent movement.
Hood: can be an accessory element; But normally it is included in the jacket.
Waistcoat: Some divers like to wear a neoprene vest under the jacket, especially in winter. For others it is enough with a T-shirt to conserve a little more heat.
Breaststroke: covers the legs and trunk, the parts of the human body that lose heat.
Escarpines: protect the feet from heat loss and some carry floors so that they can walk with them without risk to break them with rocks or crystals.
Gloves: protect the hands from cold and possible cuts by softening the skin with water.
Mask: Essential element for underwater vision. Without them we would have a problem of refraction of light. (We would look as if we were hypermétropes).
Ballast: in principle it consisted of several pieces of lead for the belt; But later appeared more comfortable types of ballast.
Knife: useful for getting rid of cables or nets, making noise with the bottle or moving small stones without putting your hand.
Fins: offer the possibility to move in a more comfortable and relaxed.

Heavy equipment

It is usually owned by only the most experienced divers.

Vest: They are a hydrostatic vests with fastenings for the bottle. They allow balancing buoyancy to any depth, and on the surface it increases buoyancy and remains on the surface effortlessly. It is very useful in rescue tasks and to help colleagues in distress.
Provided with:

A manual swelling trachea that should be large in diameter to allow rapid swelling. This trachea is found on the left side of the vest. It has a swelling button and a deflation button.
Exhaust valves: carry two: one in the upper right in the back and one in the lower part. They have incorporated a manual handle that allows the deflation of the vest.
Air bags: inside the vest and placed on the shoulders and around the waist.
Bottles: it is the container that contains the air under pressure. They are made of steel and aluminum, the latter being lighter but less resistant and slightly larger in size. They have a higher corrosion problem and are more difficult to detect than steel bottles. They are usually flat-bottomed, allowing you to stand upright. The steel bottles are of greater weight but slightly smaller. Corrosion problems are easier to detect. Its base is convex, so they need a rubber boot or bottom to stand.

The filling pressure may vary depending on the country of use, but in most cases it is usually 200 kg / cm².

You must have visual inspections every year and regular hydraulic tests.

In the neck of the bottle should be recorded a series of data on the same, such as weight on empty, capacity, name of the manufacturer, password of having passed the inspection of the corresponding official department, maximum working pressure and the date on which passed the Last hydraulic test, expressed as month and year.

Regulator: the one that reduces the air pressure of 200 or more atmospheres to the ambient pressure. Depending on the legislations, it can be simple or double; In espeleobuceo is always double. Always carry a pressure gauge that indicates the remaining pressure in the bottle.

It can be of a body (which expels the air from behind) or two bodies (it expels it in front), but also there are models with complete scuba, to be able to speak underwater or that do not expel air, for photographic works that do not disturb To wildlife, and special operations (that do not make noise or leave bubbles that can betray their presence.

Hull: for espeleobuceo.
Flashlight: they exist of different powers depending on the depth and the immersion that is realized. In espeleobuceo they are carried in duplicate and usually in the hull.
Diving computer: they have imposed themselves on the previous set formed by clock, depth gauge and sometimes compass, because they allow to plan the investment, to realize it of more secure form (it indicates if the speed of ascent is excessive, the remaining air time if we follow that one Depth, etc.) and allows a greater use of the air, despite following a strict rules of diving. They are more expensive than the set of devices mentioned above, but much more useful.
Return cable: it is used only in espeleobuceo and serves to find the way back without loss of time.

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