b Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is a sovereign country of South America comprising the eastern half of the subcontinent and some groups of small islands in the Atlantic Ocean.
With an area estimated at more than 8.5 million km², it is the fifth largest country in the world in total area (equivalent to 47% of the South American territory). Delimited by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7491 km. To the north it borders with the French overseas department of French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana and Venezuela; To the northwest with Colombia; To the west with Peru and Bolivia; To the southeast with Paraguay and Argentina, and to the south with Uruguay. In this way it has a border with all the countries of South America, except Ecuador and Chile. Most of the country is comprised between the terrestrial tropics, reason why the climatic stations do not feel in a radical way in much of the same . The Amazon rainforest covers 3.6 million km² of the territory. Thanks to its vegetation and climate, it is one of the countries with the most species of animals in the world.
Brazil, until then inhabited by Indians, had its first contact with the Europeans in 1500 through a Portuguese expedition led by Pedro Álvares Cabral. After the Treaty of Tordesillas, the Brazilian territory was the segment of the American continent that corresponded to the kingdom of Portugal, from which it gained its independence on September 7, 1822. Thus, the country went from being a central part of the kingdom of Portugal to an empire To finally become a republic. Its first capital was Salvador de Bahia, which was replaced by Rio de Janeiro until a new capital, Brasilia, was built. Its current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines Brazil as a presidential federative republic.9 The federation is formed by the union of the Federal District, the 26 states and 5565 municipalities.