b Diving, also called scuba diving, is the act by which humans immerse themselves in bodies of water, whether the sea, a lake, a river, a flooded pool or a pool, in order to develop a Professional, recreational, scientific or military research activities with or without special equipment. Traditional diving (without breathing apparatus) is simply called diving, although its sporting modality is called apnea or free diving. The term diving accurately defines the practice of diving in the sea, which is also, and by far, the most practiced diving in the world. Diving practiced in caves or galleries flooded with mines is called espeleobuceo and to dive in mountain lakes high diving.
In almost all modalities that resort to breathing apparatus the most used system is the autonomous scuba (a regulator fed by one or more bottles of compressed air). Regulator technology allows the high pressure of a reservoir of compressed air to be reduced to the pressure of the water surrounding the diver, so that the diver can breathe normally and independently from air supply pipes and tubes from the surface. In 1943 the French Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Émile Gagnan were the inventors of the regulators still used today in the autonomous diving (both professional and recreational). Other autonomous diving devices had previously been experienced (Théodore Guillaumet regulator of 1838,1 regulator Rouquayrol-Denayrouze of 1864, manoregulador of Yves Le Prieur of 1926, regulator of René and Georges Commheines of 1937 and 1942, air recycler SCUBA Of Christian Lambertsen 1940) 2 but it has been the Cousteau-Gagnan type regulator that has been imposed to date, mainly due to the simplicity and reliability of its mechanism as well as its lightness and ease of transport during dives.